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משפחה


מאמר זה בוחן שש השפעות נרחבות על ההתנהגות המינית של זוגות יהודים חרדיים והאתגרים הקליניים הגלומים הנובעים מדבקותם בכללים מסורתיים ומשפיעים על התנהגות אינטימית.דוגמת מקרה אשר ממחישה כמה מהשפעות אלה מוצגת במאמר. המאמר באנגלית מאת: ד"ר דוד ריבנר . 
Determinants of the Intimate Lives  of Haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) Jewish Couples
David S. Ribner, DSW

Introduction
Some fifty years ago Margaret Mead, In her classic work, Coming of age in Samoa, introduced many of us to the place cultural norms play in each ethnic group’s perception of appropriate sexual behavior (Mead, 1954). In the ensuing sexual upheavals, rooted in research and in changing practices, we may have lost some of the importance of this cultural dimension. For many traditional populations, ostensibly little touched by twentieth century sexual variations, intimate relations remain deeply anchored in sacred beliefs, which define, optimally, every aspect of couple interaction. 

For marital and sex therapists, it is axiomatic that denying the validity or opposing the mandates of these expectations will undermine any attempt at creating therapeutic trust. As Bhugra (2002) has recently noted, "Relationships and sexual therapies have to be seen and delivered in the context of an individual’s culture and society as well as of prevalent norms when the therapies are being offered. Furthermore, the clinician must be aware of specific cultural and ethnic patterns of relationship behaviours and social mores (p. 99).”  Working in accord with such belief systems may necessitate creative modifications of treatment protocols in order to maximize potential for change while minimizing immutable sources of resistance.

This paper examines six pervasive influences on the sexual behavior of Haredi Jewish couples and the
 inherent clinical challenges resulting from their adherence to traditional rules defining and influencing intimate behavior. A case example is presented which illustrates some of these influences.

The Haredim
The word haredi (pl. – haredim) means God fearing and refers to those within the Orthodox Jewish community whose lives are governed by scrupulous observance of Jewish law (The term "Ultra-Orthodox” has been used to refer to this population). Any deviation from Biblical and Talmudic requirements is generally unacceptable, with emphasis on stricter rather than more lenient legal interpretations. The focus is not on asceticism, but rather a belief in God’s active involvement with humanity and consequently the need to sanctify literally all aspects of daily life.

Those conducting their lives as Haredi may identify with various traditions related to geographic location, such as Eastern Europe or North Africa, or philosophical orientation, such as Hassidism – a more spiritual approach to Judaism (Ribner, 1998). Some outward manifestations, however, are common to all Haredim, including modes of dress that are modest and tend to be uniform, particularly for males; relatively specific gender role expectations; central values of marriage and large families; strict prohibition of male-female physical contact before marriage, and explicit rules governing contact after marriage; daily prayer and study, more communal for men than for women; living in Haredi neighborhoods and, wherever possible, making use of exclusively Haredi communal institutions.

This last point, the preferred separation from the general community, even from less-strict Orthodox, has, both as cause and consequence, a suspicion of any outside influence which may adulterate strongly defended values and norms. While Haredim do not oppose seeking help for personal, family or communal problems, interventions must conform to religious guidelines, with only life or death situations permitting any deviance.

  As the general public has become more attuned to definitions of sexual dysfunctions and options for treatment, so, at its own pace, has the Haredi community. Traditionally, various communal functionaries, such as rabbis, their wives and more recently paraprofessional premarital advisors for both men and women, have provided such assistance. A condition of sex therapy with Haredim is that the couple may consult a rabbinic authority at any or all stages of treatment and specific treatment suggestions may require modification to conform to religious dicta. The rabbi’s primary operating principles, based on his authority to define desired and permitted behaviors, will be a) the couple’s sexual compatibility and satisfaction, and b) their potential to fulfill the Biblical commandment of procreation. 


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מכון סאלד
אודותינו שירותים למתמודד אינדקס מטפלים מחלות נפש
שאלות נפוצות מידע למשפחות קופות חולים צפיה בסרט "אמא לא משוגעת"
צור קשר תעסוקה בתי חולים רכישת ספרות מקצועית
הרשמה לרשימת תפוצה חוקים ותקנות ביטוח לאומי העשרה והשתלמויות
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